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Fundacja Rozwoju Systemu Edukacji
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Information for foreign visitors

Republic of Poland

Location of  Poland in the European Union

Location of Poland (orange) in the European Union (camel)

Central Europe. Poland borders on Germany, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, and Russia. Its northern border – 440 km long – runs along the Baltic Sea coast.

  • Area: 312 685 sq. km

  • Capital city: Warsaw (1,7 million)

  • Major cities: Gdańsk, Cracow, Łódź, Poznań, Szczecin, Wrocław

  • Population: 38,5 million

  • Flag: White and red Flag of Poland - A horizontal bicolor of white and red

  • Official language: Polish

  • Political system: Parliamentary republic

Since May 2004 member State of the European Union


Poland is a relatively low-lying country. 91.3 percent of its territory lies below 300 m above sea level. Although predominantly lowland, Poland has a varied landscape, from the coastal plain along the Baltic Sea, and the lake districts in the North, through the lowlands in Central Poland, to the uplands and mountains in the South. Two main mountain ranges are situated in southern Poland: the Carpathians with the highest mountain chain – the Tatra, and the Sudety Mountains. The longest rivers are the Vistula (1047 km), Oder (854 km), Warta, and Bug. Poland has some 9,300 lakes with surface areas over 1 ha.

Poland lies in the central part of the European continent, the geometrical centre of which is near Warsaw. This is where the lines from Nordkyn in Norway to Matapan Cape in Greece, and from Cabo da Roca in Portugal to the central Urals intersect.

The country is divided into 16 voivodships (provinces, województwa), subdivided into districts (powiaty) and local government communes (primary level units, gminy).

Polish sites on the UNESCO World’s Cultural Heritage List:

  • Wieliczka
  • Salt Mine
  • Cracow’s Historic Centre
  • Białowieża
  • Forest
  • Nazi Concentration Camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau
  • Historic Centre of Warsaw
  • Old City of Zamość
  • Medieval Town of Toruń
  • Gothic Castle of the Teutonic
  • Order in Malbork
  • Unique monastic complex and Pilgrimage Park in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska
  • Evangelical Churches of Peace in Jawor and Świdnica
  • Wooden Churches of Southern Małopolska


Poland has a moderate climate with both maritime and continental elements. Generally, in northern and western Poland the climate is predominantly maritime, while the eastern part of the country has a distinctly continental climate with harsh winters and hotter, drier summers.
The long-awaited summer, with temperatures above 20 Celsius degrees, begins in May and is about four months long. The hottest month is July with the average temperature standing at 16-19 oC. The hottest area is central and south-west Poland. Hot days, when the temperature exceeds 25 oC, occur from May to September.
In autumn, the average temperature drops to between 5 and 15 Celsius degrees.

The coldest month in Poland is January. Sub-zero temperatures are recorded between November and March.

More information on Wikipedia
and the official Poland's web site.